垃圾食品熱量高 不知不覺長體重
文章來源: 文章作者: 發布時間:2007-05-28 07:15 字體: [ ]  進入論壇
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Junk food is fooling people into overeating

Fast food restaurants are feeding the obesity1 epidemic2 by tricking people into eating many more calories than they mean to, an important study has shown.

Typical menus at McDonald's, KFC and Burger King contain 65 per cent more calories per bite than standard British meals, making it far too easy ffor customers to overindulge without realising it.

The high "energy density3" of junk food - the amount of calories it contains in relation to its weight - throws the brain's appetite control system into confusion, as this is based on the size of a portion rather than its energy content.

The critical role of energy density in obesity has been revealed by Andrew Prentice, Professor of International Nutrition at the London School of Hygiene4 and Tropical Medicine, and Susan Jebb, of the Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Centre in Cambridge.

In a study published in the journal Obesity Reviews, they calculated the average energy density of menus at McDonald's, KFC and Burger King, using nutritional5 data from the fast food chains' websites.

The average energy density of these restaurants' meals was 263 calories per 100 grams, 65 per cent more than the density of the average British diet and more than twice that of a recommended healthy diet. This means that a person eating a Big Mac and fries would consume almost twice as many calories as someone eating the same weight of pasta and salad.

Professor Prentice said that the human appetite encouraged people to eat a similar bulk of food, regardless of its calorific value. This left regular consumers of fast food prone6 to "accidental" obesity, in which they grew fat while eating portions they did not consider large.

Professor Prentice added: "Since the dawn of agriculture, the systems regulating human appetites have evolved for the low-energy diet still consumed in rural areas of the developing world, where obesity is almost non-existent. Our system of appetite control is completely unpicked by the junk food diet."

When fast food is eaten often, even small miscalculations of portion size can have major effects, the study found. If a person eats 200g extra of fast food with a density of 1,200kJ per 100g just twice a week, he would consume an extra 250,000kJ a year. This is enough to put on almost 8kg of fat.

Fast food outlets7 should reduce the energy density of their menus as well as their portion sizes, the scientists said.


一項重要的研究顯示:快餐店引誘人們攝入的卡路里遠遠超過他們實際所需要的量,結果助長了肥胖病的流行。

麥當勞、肯德基和漢堡王的代表食品每一口的卡路里含量都比普通的西餐高出65%,讓消費者們很容易就在不知不覺中攝入了過多的卡路里。

垃圾食品含有很高的“能量密度”,即食物重量和卡路里含量的比例。垃圾食品往往使大腦的食欲控制系統陷入混亂,因為控制系統判斷的標準是食物份量的大小而不是熱量含量的高低。

倫敦公共醫學與熱帶醫學學院的國際營養學教授安德魯·普倫蒂塞和劍橋大學醫學研究學會人類營養研究中心的蘇姍·杰布已經揭示了能量密度在導致肥胖中的關鍵性作用。

《肥胖評論》雜志發表了他們的研究結果,他們通過快餐連鎖網站上的營養數據計算了麥當勞、肯德基和漢堡王食品的平均能量密度。

這些快餐店食品的平均能量密度是每一百克263卡路里,比英國日常飲食的能量密度高出65%,是推薦的健康飲食能量密度的兩倍多。這意味著吃一個巨無霸和炸薯條所攝入的卡路里差不多是吃同樣重量的意大利面和色拉所攝入熱量的兩倍。

普倫蒂塞教授說人類的食欲誘使他們攝入相似體積的食物,而不顧食物的卡路里含量。這就使得那些經常吃快餐的人在不經意間就變胖了,而他們自己卻并沒覺得吃的特別多。

普倫蒂塞教授補充說:“從農業產生以來,人類的食欲調節系統不斷向低能量進化。在發展中國家的農村,人們飲食中熱量的含量還是很低的,在這些地方,肥胖病幾乎不存在。我們的食欲控制系統完全被垃圾食品搞亂了。”

研究發現:如果你經常吃快餐食品,即使份量上很小的差異都會造成很大的影響。如果一個人每周兩次多攝入200克能量密度為1200千焦/百克的快餐食品,他每年多攝入的熱量就會達到25萬千焦,這足以增加近8千克脂肪。

科學家們指出,快餐店不僅要降低食品的能量密度,而且要縮小食品的體積。



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1 obesity Dv1ya     
n.肥胖,肥大
參考例句:
  • One effect of overeating may be obesity.吃得過多能導致肥胖。
  • Sugar and fat can more easily lead to obesity than some other foods.糖和脂肪比其他食物更容易導致肥胖。
2 epidemic 5iTzz     
n.流行病;盛行;adj.流行性的,流傳極廣的
參考例句:
  • That kind of epidemic disease has long been stamped out.那種傳染病早已絕跡。
  • The authorities tried to localise the epidemic.當局試圖把流行病限制在局部范圍。
3 density rOdzZ     
n.密集,密度,濃度
參考例句:
  • The population density of that country is 685 per square mile.那個國家的人口密度為每平方英里685人。
  • The region has a very high population density.該地區的人口密度很高。
4 hygiene Kchzr     
n.健康法,衛生學 (a.hygienic)
參考例句:
  • Their course of study includes elementary hygiene and medical theory.他們的課程包括基礎衛生學和醫療知識。
  • He's going to give us a lecture on public hygiene.他要給我們作關于公共衛生方面的報告。
5 nutritional 4HRxN     
adj.營養的,滋養的
參考例句:
  • A diet lacking in nutritional value will not keep a person healthy.缺乏營養價值的飲食不能維持人的健康。
  • The labels on food products give a lot of information about their nutritional content.食品上的標簽提供很多關于營養成分的信息。
6 prone 50bzu     
adj.(to)易于…的,很可能…的;俯臥的
參考例句:
  • Some people are prone to jump to hasty conclusions.有些人往往作出輕率的結論。
  • He is prone to lose his temper when people disagree with him.人家一不同意他的意見,他就發脾氣。
7 outlets a899f2669c499f26df428cf3d18a06c3     
n.出口( outlet的名詞復數 );經銷店;插座;廉價經銷店
參考例句:
  • The dumping of foreign cotton blocked outlets for locally grown cotton. 外國棉花的傾銷阻滯了當地生產的棉花的銷路。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • They must find outlets for their products. 他們必須為自己的產品尋找出路。 來自《現代漢英綜合大詞典》
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